At the Salone del Mobile, it is not known how much of the experts, the presence of the automotive industry became more decisive with the 21st century: the memory of direct experiences was associated with that of an article that appeared on a remote (ten years ago!) number of “Living”. The architect and lecturer Fabrizio Gallati, at the time, had aroused some minor controversy, with that somewhat perfidious underlining of how a more nourished presence had not at all contributed to clarifying a long story of complex relationships: “or the pillar it is placed right there, where the mirror does not frame it, and splinter the paint of the side, or the sleek lines of the body will make the building look like a static and embarrassed (…) There are not many who have designed both architecture and cars (…) in the few cases where this happened, the expressive languages used in the two cases remained unconnected. At most, there was a minimal assonance between furniture and cars … “
Exactly: or something happened in the meantime? Scrolling through the list of automobile presences in the “out of the salon”, to “witness of attention to the world of architecture and shapes”, meet previews of new car covers amazon or concepts in the pursuit of stylistic and ecological research, or variations on the theme of the logo and personalization of models by young or old designers, up to the simple association of cars and various events: the proposals that most seem to answer our question are still only the “design-talks” and the search for a language at least shared between automotive and residential décor. The question is however complicated. The relations between “containing” and “content”, in the case of industrial architecture, in which the automotive industry will be located, are already at the origins a mix of practical needs, of “paternalistic magniloquence” (R. Raja- “Architecture: history, meaning and project “) and tensions – immediate! – between the architect’s idea of architecture and that of architects. “The engines were wild beasts, which created anxiety for the unknown; to appease these new demons, the most solicitous of the first industrialists were careful to adopt a classical architectural style in line with tradition, for the public façade of their factories. “(G.Darley-” Factories, Origins and Development of Industrial Architecture “).
However, the steam engine allowed it to free itself from direct dependence on water and wind and to place the plant close to raw materials and communication and distribution channels. On the other hand, the growing dimensions of the work machines required new and larger environments, safer and in a relatively close future illuminated by gas light. At the beginning of the 19th century the Palladian style was abandoned for a return to functionality and solidity; the keystone for further transformations will be iron, used since the middle of the century for the same production tools, while between the end of the nineteenth century and the 1920s, reinforced concrete and the Fordist factory, with its assembly lines and the new spaces that they require, make the transition to the industrial scene of the last century. “The specific nature of the organization of the industrial process determines the plan and the form of construction” (R. Raja). With iron and cement “revolutionary bearing structures are possible, while the building’s shape and structure tend to become one.” And the building site itself becomes – like the factory – “a place where prefabricated pieces produced in series are mounted elsewhere , while the building is inspired by the logic of its destination, with large windows, clean and simple lines and the disappearance of that architectural lie that are the arches “, so, at least, the prophets of functionalism. “Behind” this, obviously, the problem of repetitive and dehumanizing work, as Chaplin said in “Modern Times”: but, “before”, the passage “to the neocapitalist phase of dialogue and confrontation with the” fine arts “and design, always with a view to recovering productivity and economic and social advantage “. It is still Raja, who notices how the architect is called upon again and only to give “artistic dignity” to a rigid plant in itself.
And in fact, electricity and motor vehicles, symbols of the new era, “are produced in steel and reinforced concrete buildings built according to the latest technical findings but buried under classic masonry cladding and conventional ornaments, recovered from civil architecture and art contemporary, for the purpose of completely exterior decorum. In the three months since I bought my 2015 Nissan LEAF, I showed it to friends and neighbors. To date, in the course of my research, which I admit is not scientific, the first question everyone asks me is: ” how long does the battery last ?”. Not a few people, not most, but all the ones I’ve invited to take a ride on my car have asked me the same question. They usually continue explaining that they must regularly replace their cell phone’s battery, and then imagine that the same applies to the batteries of an electric car. ” Overcome, do they deal with issues such as autonomy , recharging time and regenerative braking . This question highlights one of the main barriers to the spread of electric cars , which manufacturers are not tackling with sufficient decision. If the average buyer is worried by the prospect of spending thousands of dollars after a few years to buy a new battery, this simple fact will weaken his desire to join the movement in favor of electric cars. Similarly, most people who consider buying a used electric car will probably have similar concerns. Most supporters of electric cars have left these problems behind. There are not many stories about people forced to replace their batteries on the Internet. I confess I did not think much about it. The Nissan guarantees the battery of my car for eight years, and then I have five years before even starting to think about replacing it.
Given the modest demands I put on my car – less than two thousand miles in three months since I bought it – I am quite confident that the car will guarantee me ten years of faithful service. This is equivalent to about a thousand dollars a year based on the price I paid for it. Even though I will have to throw it away, I will still have saved money compared to a traditional car with a petrol or diesel engine. Why worry about what could or could happen? There is no need to worry about the life of the batteries if the car is a Tesla. According to Tesloop’s experience, it is possible to drive 300,000 miles before the battery begins to degrade significantly. The Nissan is still shrouded in a sort of fog created by the poor performance that the first LEAF batteries have had in hot and dry climates like those of Phoenix. Urban legends are hard to die and those problems will remain forever on the internet. But I have not yet heard of second-generation Nissan batteries that have had the same problems.
Understanding the Guess-O-Meter (Forecast)
One of the characteristics of an electric car that requires a certain adaptation is the indicator of autonomy , often indicated by drivers of electric cars such as Guess-O-Mete r ( Previsometro ). This nickname is actually appropriate. Part of the battery management algorithm tries to estimate how many miles of battery life remain based on various factors, including temperature. When I finish loading my LEAF, I always start the day with a range of between 89 and 94 miles. If I turn on the heater it immediately drops to 80 miles, even before the wheels start turning. The same happens if I turn on the air conditioning. The autonomy meter is really nothing more than an estimate. The car does not know in advance whether it will go downhill or uphill. He does not know if he will travel a highway or the streets of a city. The only thing the driver can do is monitor the situation and be ready to find a charging station or go home when needed. The autonomy meter is a guide . The answer to “how much can you go on with a single recharge” is, really, “depends”. It is true, however, that even the fuel gauge of conventional cars is not so precise. Usually the hand remains attached to the full tank indicator, arousing in us the illusion that our car is suddenly enjoying unlimited autonomy. Then it sinks from a quarter tank to the reserve indicator in less than ten miles, destroying our hopes again. I found that the autonomy meter tends to fall rather quickly when I start driving with full battery, but when I enter the last third of the safety level, the miles of remaining battery life do not seem to decrease at the same speed. As is the case with the petrol gauge, every autonomy meter has its quirks and its faults, which we will get used to as we drive the vehicle.
Get used to the new normality
In the three months I spent with my LEAF, I can really say I enjoyed driving it. I can not wait to visit some places on it, as long as they are not more than forty miles from my house. Fortunately, this category includes all my driving needs. I find myself turning off the heating on cold mornings when the cockpit is warmed up. And I practice practicing departures and braking sweets, just as they had taught me to do at the driving school in the last century. But there’s another thing I’ve discovered and like, about driving an electric car. This morning the pumpkins, here in New England, were covered in ice. My wife and I both had to go out, but in two separate cars. The defrost of my LEAF freed my windshield in about two minutes. My wife was still in the driveway, waiting for the engine of her car to produce some heat. Fantastic. I have only one regret related to having bought an electric car. I wish I had done it before! Without the past, there is no future. Here are fifteen houses that have made the history of the automobile world born more than 100 years ago. Nowadays, the automotive world experiences a very interesting polarization. On the one hand, we have a number of new brands, which have recently started their solo adventure, such as Cupra , DS , Abarth , Polestar or Mercedes-AMG . However, there are some producers who have already blown over 100 candles in their birthday cake, offering the world and us passionate a real story about what the automotive world is. Today’s slideshow aims to celebrate the latter, the pioneers of the automotive industry, who have survived to this day.
Centenary Houses therefore: in this ranking you will not find brands like Bentley or Citroën , who are 99 years old, or Suzuki, which although it was founded more than a century ago (in 1909), did not manage to build cars until the thirties of the twentieth century. they started building cars until the 1930s of the last century.
The shelves of the Giugiaro house are put to the test: the rain of awards continues for Giorgetto who in Rome, at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei has just been awarded the “Antonio Feltrinelli Award” which is added to an infinite number of degrees honorem, under the title of “designer of the century” and much more.
“In Italy – the archistar Paolo Portoghesi explained – there are many designers but Giugiaro besides being the most acclaimed is also the most humble, because he uses his skill in pursuing beauty to improve the lives of all of us. we have a different perception of beauty but Giugiaro has given a great deal of mine to identify the concept of beauty for all “.
The words of Portoghesi clearly explain why the shelves of the Giugiaro house are yielding … “Giorgetto – continues the archistar – has chosen this path by taking care of cars that have entered the social, in our common life. So, with regards to design, Argan talks about ‘quantification of quality’ in reproducing things that can improve people’s lives.That is, this aspect can be applied in a thousand ways, but Giugiaro is the designer who has applied it better because in his continuous search for concreteness and utility – when he draws everything – he has done school “.
“I am passionate about photography – concluded Portoghesi – and I think about Giugiaro every time
I pick up the Nikon: beauty and utility together, all sensations that objects made by Giorgetto strongly express. Here, in short, is the reason why the Academy of high schools awarded a super-awarded person “.
Giugiaro, you know is not only a great designer, but also a person of great sensitivity, it says right away to feel embarrassed for words Portuguese architect. “My creative thinking that is recognized today by such an important academy – he explains – puts me in awe because I selfishly only did what I liked to do, with a lot of work and a lot of discipline, but the thing I like best the motivation of the award is that related to a project of economic functional, functional emotional: when I design a car I never start from emotion It is exactly the opposite: I start from economic rationality, and then we get to functionality. in the process of my path that conclusion does not give any economic results, no longer speaks of beauty, Here is the secret of the cars, but also of the pots, trains, pasta, telephones designed by Giugiaro. “What I prefer – continues Giorgetto – is functionality and consistency of the project with the regulations to be respected, I refer to the car, which is always included in a security context, for insurance, for approvals, and who buys a machine does not imagine the process that has to be done to get to the final product Obviously this analysis is identical for everything from the glass to the camera, and the analysis of what creativity has to face “. Given the environment, the frame and the frescoes surrounding the Accademia dei Lincei, Giugiaro also traces his life. “I – he says – have been disciplined in the mathematical logic of what I have done: I come from a family of artists, my grandfather and my father were decorators, painters, and when I see the Palazzo della Farnesina and these frescoes, I am stunned. I did not know what the car was like until I was 17 and I did only schools of art preparation, but my father, who had already guessed the change underway after the war, wanted me to do evening classes at the age of 12 to make me to understand that the drawing is not decorative, but has a third dimension: I was immediately directed to the discipline of creating, of drawing, keeping in mind the third dimension, namely the technique. So I did technical drawing schools. And this combination gave me the chanche to find creativity in a world that was looking towards useful things. Handles, cups, etc. “